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LEAD TERMS IN LAYMANS LANGUAGE

 

Lead Based Paint
Paint (also putties, glazes and other surface coatings) which contain a "dangerous" amount of lead. Under current regulations paint with greater than 600 parts per million is no longer manufactured for household use, but it is still available for marine and other exterior use.


Lead
Naturally occurring mineral which has been proven to have severe health effects if breathed or ingested. Only tetraethyl lead (i.e., the kind of lead used in gasoline) is known to be readily absorbed by the skin.


HUD
Housing and Urban Development; the Federal agency which is currently in charge of public housing. HUD has published guidelines for the testing and risk assessment of lead in public housing, aimed toward reducing lead poisoning primarily in children and women of child bearing potential.


OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health Administration; The Federal agency responsible for workplace safety; OSHA has strict regulations regarding exposure of workers to lead.


Lead Inspection
The process of inspecting a building or dwelling to determine the presence of lead in the painted surfaces. The determination of "lead" is different for HUD than it is for OSHA. HUD defines "lead paint" as having greater than 1 micrograms per square centimeter of surface or .5% by weight; OSHA has no threshold limit: any delectable lead in a paint makes it lead paint as far as worker exposures are concerned. Lead inspections are performed by XRF, paint chip analysis, or a combination of both.


XRF
X-Ray Fluorescence. This method involves the use of an instrument which utilizes a radioactive source (usually Cadmium 109 or Cobalt 57) to measure the amount of lead on a painted surface. The instrument reports results in micrograms per squared centimeter of surface. There is no correlation between the amount of lead measured by XRF and the amount of lead which is determined by Atomic Absorption under the current reporting standards. Most XRF instruments are adversely affected by the substrate, or surface which underlies the paint. The Niton XL does not need substrate correction. It can also determine the relative depth of the lead (i.e., whether it is at the surface or buried beneath layers of non-leaded paint.


Atomic Absorption (AA)
The method of analysis used to determine the percent of lead in paint chips, dust samples, soil and water. This is a laboratory (as opposed to field) method. The results are reported in parts per million (ppm) and/or in % lead for amount of material tested.


Specification
Guidelines for a contractor to following in removing or otherwise disturbing lead paint.


Project Management
During abatement it is often prudent to have a professional representing the interests of the biudling owner to oversee the project.


Abatement
The process of treating lead pain t to reduce or remove its hazard potential. The three methods of abatement are removal, or taking the lead off the surface; encasement, which is enclosing the lead paint behind or within an impermeable covering, and replacement which is the process of removing the building component and replacing it with a new piece.


Air Montoring
Collecting samples of air for the purposes of determining the quantity of lead dust. Air samples are collected either in the breathing zone of workers (personal air samples) or in large areas. During an abatement project it is customary to have air samples taken outside the work area to ensure and document that the lead dust did not migrate to unprotected areas.


Clearance Sampling
After a lead abatement action, it is customary (required by HUD) to take wipe samples of measured areas of the room to determine the residual levels of lead. The samples are analyzed by atomic absorption, and results are reported in micrograms per square foot. The current EPA recommendations for clearance are:

Uncarpeted floors 40 mg/ft²
Interior window sills 250 mg/ft²
Window troughs, wells 400 mg/ft²

Many of the terms defined for asbestos also apply to lead.